You asked part 1

Since Charlotte asked about the proton pumps, I thought I’d go into a bit more detail.

The pumps are referred to as complexes, given Roman numerals I, II, III and IV. Complex I is really an enzyme, called NADH dehydrogenase (why is it called a complex? There are 45 separate polypetide chains). 2 electrons are passed onto a substance called ubiquinone (or just Q), which is reduced to ubiquinol (QH2). This is lipid soluble, and moves easily through the membrane. 4 protons are pumped through the membrane.

Complex II (aka succinate dehydrogenase)  gives additional electrons to Q, which is then passed to Complex III (aka cytochrome bc complex). Here the electrons are passed on to another molecule, cytochrome C. 6 protons in total are translocated (moved across the membrane) at this point. Finally cytochrome C (whgich is a water soluble, integral protein membrane) electrons on to Complex IV, where the electrons are removed and used in reducing oxygen to water. Cytochrome C is inhibited by cyanide – a poison which will stop aerobic respiration.

Here’s a nice summary from wikipedia:

In eukaryotes, NADH is the most important electron donor. The associated electron transport chain is

NADHComplex IQComplex IIIcytochrome cComplex IVO2 where Complexes I, III and IV are proton pumps, while Q and cytochrome c are mobile electron carriers. The electron acceptor is molecular oxygen.

Remember, you will be tested on what is in the specification, but reading further in your subject will always help.

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Author: Mr Whellan's science

Nomadic science teacher

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